Lavazza Case彩色重点

发布时间:2023-5-26 | 杂志分类:其他

Lavazza Case彩色重点

i1v2e5y5pubsW27255 LAVAZZA: THE CHALLENGES OF FOREIGN MARKET ENTRY IN A BRAND-INTENSIVE INDUSTRY1 Soni Jha, Solon Moreira, and Ram Mudambi wrote this case solely to provide material for class discussion. The authors do not intend to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of a managerial situation. The authors may have disguised certain names and other identifying information to protect confidentiality. This publication may not be transmitted, photocopi... [收起]
Lavazza Case彩色重点
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Soni Jha, Solon Moreira, and Ram Mudambi wrote this case solely to provide material for class discussion. The authors do not intend

to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of a managerial situation. The authors may have disguised certain names and other

identifying information to protect confidentiality.

This publication may not be transmitted, photocopied, digitized, or otherwise reproduced in any form or by any means without the

permission of the copyright holder. Reproduction of this material is not covered under authorization by any reproduction rights

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Copyright © 2022, Ivey Business School Foundation Version: 2022-08-12

Luigi Lavazza SpA (Lavazza) was the largest coffee maker in Italy, often analogously referred to as Italy’s

favourite coffee, and the seventh-largest coffee roaster in the world.

2 Founded in Turin, Italy, in 1895,

Lavazza had a 125-year-old legacy with deep roots in Italian coffee culture and was primarily known for

its espresso blends—a cornerstone of the coffee culture in Italy and the rest of Europe.

3 Since the 1980s,

after Lavazza ventured into global markets, it had seen tremendous growth, and by 2020, more than 70 per

cent of Lavazza’s global sales came from overseas markets.

4 Despite its success in global markets, Lavazza

was finding it difficult to make its mark in the United States—the largest coffee market in the world, worth

more than US$8.1 billion,

5 and the second-largest market for Lavazza (see Exhibit 1). After establishing its

North American subsidiary in 1989,

6 Lavazza entered the US market in the 1990s using strategic

partnerships with restaurants and hotels to cater to US consumers. But even with its thirty years of

experience in the US market and a strong global brand, Lavazza continued to struggle in the US market,

earning total revenue of $110.8 million across all of its segments, representing a market share of less than

1.4 per cent.7 By September 2021, as competition in the global coffee industry intensified, Lavazza could

no longer afford to be complacent with its performance in the US market, and it sought to increase its

market share. However, Lavazza faced a key strategic decision: should it try to introduce US consumers to

the “Italian way” of drinking espresso coffee, or should it create a new brand identity and a new portfolio

of products that were more aligned with the tastes of US consumers?


In 1895, the founder of the company, Luigi Lavazza, invented the art of blending coffee by mixing coffee

of different origins and then roasting it, often customized to the individual tastes of his customers. This

required Lavazza to source coffee beans from multiple geographical locations dispersed globally, an

unusual strategy for a grocery shop coffee seller at the time. However, Lavazza’s blended coffee soon

became a sensation with local coffee consumers and led to the company’s eventual success. By 1927,

Lavazza had transformed from a small-scale commercial enterprise into a family company.

Staying true to the vision of its founder, the company philosophy continued to emphasize product quality

and innovation through to the latter half of the twentieth century. Unlike most family firms, Lavazza

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continued to spend heavily on research and development. In 2018 alone, Lavazza spent more than 2.5 per

cent of its revenues on research and development.

8 In the 1970s, Lavazza introduced vacuum-sealed

packaging for its coffee beans and coffee grounds to prolong their freshness.

9 Overseas export of coffee

often led to significant degradation of the aroma and taste of the ground coffee and remained a significant

challenge for sellers of roasted coffee blends. To overcome this issue, Lavazza introduced vacuum-sealed

packaging for ground coffee, which soon became the de facto industry standard. This new and innovative

form of packaging meant that Lavazza could sell a variety of custom blends to a wide range of consumers,

each with different tastes and budgets.


Lavazza’s third innovative breakthrough came in the 1980s when it started to explore international markets

for expansion and growth and opened its first overseas café in France in 1982.

11 Through the 1990s and

2000s, Lavazza sought to use its age-old expertise in coffee blending to its advantage and aid its expansion

in the global market by undertaking extensive market research and investing in a lab dedicated to

formulating new coffee blends that changed in response to consumers’ evolving tastes.

12 Based on local

consumers’ tastes in coffee and consumers’ willingness to pay, Lavazza offered a wide variety of coffee

blends at different price points. By the early 2000s, Lavazza had succeeded in making café-quality coffee

and Italian-inspired cafés a global phenomenon and was present in more than 140 countries. In 2020, global

sales contributed to more than 70 per cent of Lavazza’s overall turnover.


Despite Lavazza’s popularity in global markets, its cutting-edge technology, and its emphasis on innovation,

the US market remained elusive for the coffee maker. Its US strategy of partnering with local restaurants and

bars did not result in any notable success. In 2015, Lavazza shifted away from the business-to-business (B2B)

segment and its partnerships with restaurants and cafés and instead began to focus on the household coffee

market and selling its products directly to consumers through local grocery chains such as Publix Super

Markets Inc. (Florida) and Costco Wholesale Corporation.14 The roasted and packaged coffee beans and

coffee grounds were imported from Italy and distributed in the United States. This strategic shift in focus did

lead to some success for Lavazza in the United States. In 2020, its retail segment grew by more than 22 per

cent in the United States, with a market share of just over 1 per cent. However, this success paled in

comparison to the performance of its peers, such as Folgers Coffee (Folgers), which had a market share of

over 25.1 per cent of the US household market, and Starbucks Corporation (Starbucks), which had had a

market share of over 12.4 per cent of the US household market in the same period.15 Lavazza also continued

to perform poorly in the United States in terms of brand awareness and consumer appeal. Even with extensive

marketing and brand awareness campaigns, in a survey conducted by Statista in 2017, where coffee consumers

were asked about their preferred brands, Lavazza ranked eighteenth—far behind all of its major rivals.16


When entering foreign markets, Lavazza tended to acquire and utilize local roasters and brewers to cater to

the tastes of local consumers. It adopted this strategy in both mature and emerging markets, with notable

success. 17 To serve mature markets such as France and the Netherlands, Lavazza acquired Carte Noire and

Merrild. Similarly, Lavazza acquired the coffee companies Fresh and Honest Cafe and the Barista Coffee

Company Limited to enter India, an emerging market. This expansion strategy underscored the recognition

that different coffee markets had distinctive features and differing consumer demands. The acquired assets,

however, were rebranded to fit Lavazza’s brand identity. These acquisitions and rebranding helped Lavazza

to tailor its offering to the local market while remaining true to its core philosophy of serving authentic Italian

coffee and keeping its global brand identity consolidated. In 2013, Marco Lavazza, the vice-president of the

Lavazza Group, noted, “We want to give the right idea, that when a customer comes in, they are coming into

a real Italian store. Everything links together because, at the end of the day, we only have one brand. We want

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to give customers a positive association with that brand. They have to find quality and consistency wherever

he or she goes. . . . We have one brand, and it’s our surname, so it really has to be perfect.”18

Besides innovations in ground coffee tailored to local markets, Lavazza’s strategy in the European market

had also been to open Lavazza cafés that were designed to demonstrate the coffee maker’s creativity and to

emphasize the rich taste of its espresso blends. Brightly lit and featuring a contemporary design with golden

panels, Lavazza cafés symbolized opulence and aimed to provide Lavazza’s consumers with a holistic

experience.19 The café baristas were trained to serve precision in a cup of coffee, and offered consumers

food suggestions to complement their coffee choices—all a part of Lavazza’s “coffee design experience.”

Opening boutique cafés proved a successful strategy for Lavazza in entering the broader European market.

In 2021, Antonio Baravalle, chief executive officer (CEO) of Lavazza, said, “When you're building a brand,

you need all contact with customers: at home, in the office, in cafés and bars. . . . We need the combination

of all touchpoints.”20 Naturally, Lavazza cafés also served as venues for product introduction and as points

of sale for Lavazza’s household products. In addition, Lavazza built and leveraged a community of bar

owners by providing them with the training to test and serve coffee. These coffee bar owners became an

integral part of Lavazza’s success in Europe, as they helped to control the quality of the customized,

handcrafted single-serve coffee and became local brand ambassadors. By 2015, Lavazza operated fifty

training centres globally, in which more than 30,000 individual bar owners were trained.



In the 1950s, as TV advertising soared, commercials became the proving grounds for creative professionals.

Emilio Lavazza, then CEO of Lavazza, leveraged this visual medium and synonymized Lavazza coffee

with the elegant Italian way of drinking coffee. Ad slogans such as “Lavazza coffee—the more you down,

the more it picks you up,” “Any time’s the right time,” “Coffee makes everything better—even Heaven,”

and “From Italy with passion” had enormous mass appeal and helped Lavazza to become a global brand,

which itself remained distinctly Italian.


Continuing its streak of marketing innovations, Lavazza also pioneered the use of celebrity endorsements,

art exhibition patronships, and sports tournament sponsorships in the industry.23 This helped Lavazza’s

brand identity become intricately linked with precision, authenticity, creativity, and innovation. In 2019, at

an art exhibition sponsored by Lavazza, Francesca Lavazza, a member of the Lavazza board of directors,

emphasized that the sponsorship of art exhibitions represented “not only a progressive and crucial step

towards supporting and enhancing arts and culture but also a reaffirmation of our role as ambassadors of

creativity, innovation, and sharing.”24


One of the key ingredients of the success of the Lavazza brand in Europe was Lavazza’s wide array of

espresso blends, which had become synonymous with the brand itself. This was unsurprising considering

Lavazza’s roots in Italy, home to espresso drinks. Lavazza sought to replicate the success of its espresso

blends in the United States by persistently marketing them to US consumers. In line with its global strategy,

Lavazza formed an exclusive partnership with the 2015 US Open tennis tournament to enhance its standing

in the US consumer market, and this partnership continued into 2021.

25 Lavazza also sponsored several art

exhibitions in the United States, including several at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York.

These marketing decisions emphasized Lavazza’s espresso blends’ authenticity, perfection, and precision.

In August 2015, at the commencement ceremony of the US Open, Giuseppe Lavazza said, “The agreement,

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which forms part of the internationalization strategy pursued by the Italian company and brand, underlines

our intention to make the United States our second home and to consolidate the relationship between

Lavazza and expressions of excellence the world over.”26 Lavazza also stated that “The [US Open]

Championships provide the greatest opportunity to showcase the excellence of our core product—espresso,

as well as our innovative flair in the form of exclusive new recipes and skill in training baristas to Lavazza’s

exacting standard.”27

There seemed to be a mismatch in Lavazza’s product-market fit. Among US households, drip coffee was

the most popular non-alcoholic beverage, and ground coffee and single-cup coffee were the leading market

segments in the US coffee market.

28 Moreover, US consumers tended to drink less concentrated forms of

coffee in larger quantities and often preferred flavoured coffee drinks (see Exhibit 2). Lavazza had a

competitive edge in relation to its peers because its product portfolio could cater to both bulk ground coffee

and single-serve coffee consumers.

29 In 2015, Ennio Ranaboldo, then CEO of Lavazza North America, said,

“What we were really missing was a significant grasp of the American consumers’ minds. As much as we

love espresso, it’s drunk by a minority of consumers. Already the ability of expanding the lineup to include

other specialty beverages was a major achievement. Now, we have a full lineup of drip coffees tailored for

the American consumer.”30

However, despite this acknowledgement, Lavazza could not reap the benefits of its strong product portfolio

in the US market. Its continued emphasis on its espresso blends belied its vast portfolio of products more

suited for US consumers.


Lavazza’s attempts to convince US consumers to change their coffee preferences by leveraging its strategic

partnerships with restaurants and grocery chains across the US market also remained unsuccessful, for two

reasons. First, most restaurants and hotels served Lavazza coffee under their own brand and used their own

signature recipes, reducing Lavazza’s visibility among US consumers. Second, the most important segment

of the US coffee market was the specialty coffee bars that emerged from the coffee shop revolution led by

Starbucks. Success in the specialty coffee bar segment also meant success in the household consumer

segment. Leading household brands such as Dunkin’ Donuts LLC (Dunkin’), McCafé, and others were

present in both the coffee bar and ground coffee segments.

32 However, unlike its peers and despite the

success of its boutique cafés in Europe, Lavazza had a negligible presence in the specialty coffee bar market

in the United States.

After relying on key partners to cater to US consumers for twenty-five years and failing to make a mark,

Lavazza’s management decided to take direct charge of their US operations.

33 In 2018, Lavazza also

acquired Mars Drinks, the beverage division of Mars Inc., for $650 million and renamed it Lavazza

Professional to directly serve its US consumers. Soon after, Lavazza’s retail sales in the US market grew

by over 17 per cent in 2019 and 22 per cent in 2020.

34 However, Lavazza’s marketing strategy failed to

reflect the more inclusive product portfolio of the company. Even as Lavazza tried to position itself as a

premium coffee brand in the United States, it aggressively marketed its espresso-based beverages to US

consumers. Commenting on the competition from Starbucks and Folgers in the US markets, Baravalle said,

“Compared to these giants, we are small potatoes. The only thing we can do is be very careful about our

identity. . . . And we focus only on coffee.”35


Lavazza primarily competed globally in the ground coffee market within two segments—the household

market and the B2B market. The former direct-to-consumer retail channel made up 60 per cent of Lavazza’s

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global revenues, while the latter B2B sales accounted for the remainder. Given the industry standards,

Lavazza was overexposed in the B2B segment, and it made sense for Lavazza Professional to focus on this

segment exclusively. Lavazza Professional concentrated on creating custom coffee machines and coffee

products for its business customers according to their requirements of space and taste,

36 and it ran special

marketing campaigns in conjunction with its B2B customers.


Beginning in 2020, Lavazza sought to cross-leverage its learning from the B2B segment to serve its

household market segment. Lavazza’s household segment had witnessed tremendous growth in recent

years, outperforming analyst expectations and offsetting Lavazza’s losses in the B2B segment. As the

COVID-19 pandemic hit globally, Lavazza’s B2B sales declined sharply amid lockdowns and office

closures. Lavazza’s B2B sales in the United States alone fell by over 66 per cent in 2020.38 Despite the

intensifying competition in the global coffee market and significant losses in the B2B segment due to the

pandemic, Lavazza posted a 15 per cent growth in its retail business globally in 2019.39

Further, as the pandemic rendered many individuals housebound and unable to visit their favourite local

baristas, consumers increasingly gravitated toward purchasing more sophisticated or specialty coffee

machines. Coffee machine sales became the next avenue for growth for Lavazza (see Exhibit 3). To

capitalize on this opportunity, Lavazza started to customize its coffee machines, which had primarily been

sold to business consumers, to reduce costs and make them affordable for the household market. Even with

such customization, the specialty coffee machines sold by Lavazza usually cost around $200.

40 Eyeing the

potential of this market and the hurdle of high costs, Lavazza launched a coffee-pod subscription service,

first in Europe and then in the United States, which enabled its consumers to lease Lavazza coffee machines

for significantly lower prices and served to increase sales of Lavazza’s single-serve coffee pods.



In essence, Lavazza faced competition from two fronts in the US markets: on the one hand were rivals such

as Starbucks and Dunkin’, which sold ground coffee products and services such as handcrafted coffee,

specialty coffee, and the café experience, and on the other hand were rivals such as Folgers, Keurig Dr

Pepper Inc. (Keurig), and Stok, which only sold ground coffee products, but on a much grander scale

through extensive retail distribution channels throughout the United States. Folgers, Keurig, and Maxwell

House led the ground coffee market, while Starbucks and Dunkin’ led the coffee bar segment.

42 Based on

overall revenues, the two most significant competitors of Lavazza in the United States were Folgers and

Starbucks, both of which had similar value propositions but used different business models (see Exhibit 4):

Folgers emphasized household sales and retail distribution, while Starbucks focused on developing its chain

of boutique cafés serving specialty and handcrafted coffee to individual US consumers and acting as the

point of sales for its bulk products.43 Lavazza also faced competition from other aforementioned coffee

brands with a significant presence in the ground coffee and coffee bean market.


History and Business Model

Even though Starbucks opened its first outlet in 1971 in Seattle, Washington, the quintessential Starbucks

café was born only in the late 1980s. Howard Schultz, then director of marketing for Starbucks, got the

inspiration for Starbucks cafés when he travelled to Italy, where baristas served handcrafted specialty


44 Soon, the Starbucks cafés became a popular alternative to work and home for professionals and

led to Starbucks’ meteoric rise in the United States and globally.


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Product and Positioning

By 2020, Starbucks was leading the global coffee market with revenues of more than $19.16 billion,

primarily contributed by two key markets: the United States and China. Starbucks owned more than 80 per

cent of the coffee shops in the United States.46 In the past decade, Starbucks had sought to increase its

market share in key European markets besides the United Kingdom and Turkey (where it had the most

stores)—albeit with limited success thus far.


In September 2017, Starbucks ventured into the Italian coffee market by opening its first store in a

historically important location in Milan, Italy.

48 However, as of 2021, Lavazza, Nestlé SA, and Illycaffè

SpA remained the market leaders in the Italian coffee market, while Starbucks was yet to break into the top

twenty coffee brands in Italy.

49 Starbucks’ weak performance in Italy appeared to mirror Lavazza’s travails

in the United States.


History and Business Model

In 1850, J. A. Folger founded Pioneer Steam Coffee and Spice Mills, which became J. A. Folger &

Company in 1854. Folger introduced the idea of cup testing and sold his products based on the quality of

the brewed coffee. In 1900, when Folgers began selling its products through grocers, coffee samples, and

elaborate in-store displays designed by Folgers, salespeople remained a key strategy. In 2020, Folgers

recorded total revenue of $2.3746 billion, primarily from its domestic coffee market.


In 1963, Folgers was acquired by Procter & Gamble Company, who began selling Folgers nationally

through multiple retail distribution channels, and Folgers soon became the number one coffee brand in the

United States.

51 In 2008, Folgers was acquired by the J. M. Smucker Company and remained one of the

most popular coffee brands in the US household market.


Product and Positioning

One of the key strategies for Folgers’ success in the US markets was its ability to appeal to US consumers

with a customized menu in four segments—fresh and ground coffee, premium coffee, single-serve coffee,

and instant coffee—at affordable rates.

53 In addition, Folgers also leveraged its cultural heritage with older

US consumers. However, despite its market leadership, Folgers was witnessing a steady decline in its

market because its appeal among younger consumers was decreasing with each passing day.54 To remain

relevant for millennials and Generation Z, Folgers needed to present a more modern approach, but doing

so could undercut its market of older consumers, who had had Folgers coffee all of their lives and would

be resistant to change.



Since its inception in 1895, Lavazza had continued to pioneer new product innovations in the coffee

industry. However, despite Lavazza’s innovativeness and diverse product portfolio, its presence in the US

coffee market remained limited, stilting the coffee maker’s global growth aspirations. Even though Lavazza

was the third-largest company in the global coffee market, its global market share remained less than 3 per

cent.56 Meanwhile, even as Lavazza struggled in the US market, it also faced increasing competition in its

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domestic markets from the entry of major competitors such as Starbucks and suffered a marginal decline in


57 This further underscored the importance of growing its share of the US market. Lavazza had since

realized that its primary constraints in growing its market share in the United States were (1) the lack of

products that would specifically cater to US customers, (2) limited brand recognition among US consumers,

and (3) limited ability to influence retail sales due to Lavazza’s absence in the food service segment.

Between October 2018 and September 2021, Lavazza raised approximately €1 billion58 from a group of

Italian banks to pursue the coffee maker’s expansion strategy in the United States and improve its brand

awareness among US consumers to increase its market share.

59 However, the specific steps Lavazza needed

to take to gain more traction among US consumers remained unclear.

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Destination Subsidiaries Other customers Total

European Union countries 431,223,079 160,616,303 531, 839,382

Other European countries 57,825,954 78,329,523 136,155,477

United States 45,727,190 462,100 46,189,290

Rest of the world 22,681,472 46,316,953 68,998,425

Total sales, abroad 557,457,695 285,724,879 843,182,574

Total sales, Italy 34,712,976 643,100,783 677,813,759

Total 592,170,671 928,825,662 1,520,996,333

Note: € = EUR = euro; US$1 = €0.844 on September 1, 2021.

Source: Lavazza Premium Coffees Corp. (080LYB-E) – Subsidiary, “Company Overview,” FactSet Intelligence, accessed

September 28, 2021; Lavazza Group, Annual Report 2020, 194, accessed October 5, 2021,


Coffee type Market share (%)

Traditional coffee 0.43

Traditional coffee (not gourmet) 0.32

Espresso-based beverages 0.24

Traditional coffee (gourmet) 0.13

Non-espresso-based beverages 0.12

Decaffeinated 0.09

Instant 0.05

Source: “Coffee Market in the US,” Statista, accessed October 1, 2021


Asset category 2020 2019 Change

Sales, coffee and food products 1,437,200,327 1,415,412,370 21,787,957

Sales, coffee machines and spare parts 64,065,767 74,631,611 (10,565,844)

Sales, advertising materials 6,740,684 10,518,840 (3,778,156)

Sales, packaging 804,625 73,174 731,451

Sales, other products 2,109,574 3,404,947 (1,295,373)

Sales, raw materials and other ancillaries 10,075,356 8,313,500 1,761,856

Total 1,520,996,333 1,512,354,442 8,641,891

Note: € = EUR = euro; US$1 = €0.844 on September 1, 2021.

Source: Lavazza Group, Annual Report 2020, 194, accessed October 5, 2021,

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Company Name

Luigi Lavazza SpA Starbucks

Corporation Folgers Coffee

Founding year 1895 1971 1850

Founder(s) Luigi Lavazza

Zev Siegel

Jerry Baldwin

Gordon Bowler

J. A. Folger

Areas of operations 140 countries 70 countries

United States,

Canada, Mexico, and

parts of Asia

Headquarters Turin, Italy Seattle, Oregon,

United States

San Francisco,

California, United


Own production facilities? Yes Yes Yes

Product portfolio

Coffee beans, coffee

drinks, handcrafted

beverages, fresh

food, ready-to-drink

beverages, and

coffee machines

Coffee beans, coffee

drinks, handcrafted

beverages, fresh

food, merchandise,

and ready-to-drink


Coffee beans, coffee

drinks, and ready-todrink beverages

Flagship products or


Espresso blends,

café experience

Café experience,

bottled Frappuccino

Ground coffee,

instant coffee crystals

Key markets Italy, France, Russia United States, China United States

Market positioning B2B, direct to


Direct to consumer

through specialty


Direct to consumer

through mass

retailers and grocers

Note: B2B = business to business.

Source: “History,” Lavazza, accessed September 28, 2021,; “Our

History,” Lavazza Group, accessed October 5, 2021,; Lavazza

Premium Coffees Corp. (080LYB-E) – Subsidiary, “Company Overview,” FactSet Intelligence, accessed September 28, 2021;

“Our Company,” Starbucks Coffee Company, accessed September 28, 2021,; “Our

Coffee History,” Folgers, accessed September 28, 2021,

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1 This case has been written on the basis of published sources only. Consequently, the interpretation and perspectives

presented in this case are not necessarily those of Luigi Lavazza SpA or any of its employees. 2 “Lavazza Posts Record 2019 Results and Pledges €10M Coronavirus Relief for Italy,” World Coffee Portal, March 27, 2020, 3 “About Us,” Lavazza, accessed September 28, 2021, 4 Lavazza Premium Coffees Corp. (080LYB-E) – Subsidiary, “Company Overview,” FactSet Intelligence, accessed September

28, 2021.

5 All dollar amounts are in US dollars; “Hot Drinks,” Statista, accessed October 1, 2021, 6 “The Steps towards Internationalisation,” Lavazza Group, accessed September 28, 2021, 7 Lavazza Premium Coffees Corp., “Company Overview.” 8 Rachel Sanderson, “Lavazza Targets €2Bn Sales within 5 Years,” Financial Times, March 10, 2016, 9 “When Coffee is Lavazza,” Italtrade Spotlight, November 24, 2005, 10 “When Coffee is Lavazza.” 11 “The Steps towards Internationalisation.” 12 “The Steps towards Internationalisation.” 13 Lavazza Premium Coffees Corp., “Company Overview.” 14 Corinne Gertler, “Lavazza Coffee Challenges Starbucks in U.S.,” Bloomberg, November 25, 2015. 15 “Market Share of Ground Coffee in the United States in 2020, by Leading Brands,” Statista, July 2020, 16 Alexander Kunst, “Awareness of Coffee Brands among U.S. Consumers 2017,” Statista, December 20, 2019, 17 “The Steps towards Internationalisation,” Lavazza Group. 18 “Lavazza’s Strategy for Global Growth,” Global Coffee Report, May 15, 2013, 19 Jaughna, “Inside the Lavazza Coffee Design Experience in Milan,” To What Place, April 7, 2018, 20 Mathias Himberg, “‘Gastronomy Will Make a Strong Comeback,’” Food Service, October 7, 2021, 21 Gertler, “Lavazza Coffee Challenges Starbucks.” 22 “Lavazza Advertising,” Lavazza, accessed March 31, 2022, 23 “Lavazza Advertising.” 24 Lavazza, “Lavazza Furthers Collaboration with Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation with Support of the New Exhibition,

Artistic License,” press release, May 23, 2019, 25 Lavazza, “The US Open Is Back with a Perfect Serve: Lavazza Coffee,” press release, August 24, 2021, 26 Lavazza, “Lavazza Announce Multi-Year Agreement for the US Open Tennis Championships,” press release, February 17,

2015, 27 Lavazza, “Lavazza Unveils Exclusive New Recipes at the World’s Greatest Coffee Shop at Wimbledon,” press release,

accessed September 28, 2021, 28 “Coffee Market in the U.S.,” Statista, July 2021, 29 “Coffee Market Heating Up: Lavazza Takes a $650M Bite Out of Mars,” Bocconi Students Investment Club, October 28,

2018, 30 Michelle Castillo, “Will This Brand Be Able to Take Down Starbucks?,” CNBC, October 27, 2015, 31 “‘Made in Italy – Lavazza Expands “Buongiorno’ Advertising Campaign to US,” Communicaffe International, January 11,

2015, 32 “Coffee Market in the U.S.” 33 Francesca Landini, “Lavazza Vows Independence, Says Turned Down JAB and Nestle,” Reuters, April 12, 2018, 34 Lavazza Group, Annual Report 2020, 28, accessed October 5, 2021, 35 Himberg, “‘Gastronomy Will Make.” 36 “Coffee Solutions for Business,” Lavazza, accessed September 28, 2021,

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37 Dianna Dilworth, “Lavazza Teams with WeWork to Reach Younger Audiences through Purpose-Based Storytelling,” Brand

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This document is authorized for use only in Vikas Kumar 's IBUS5003 Global Business (SEM 1, 2023) PART 3 at University of Sydney from May 2023 to Nov 2023.