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The City of Bloomington Tree Care Manual A Handbook for the Care of Urban Trees The City of Bloomington Tree Commission This educational brochure was prepared with funding assistance from the Indiana Department of Natural Resources Urban Forestry Conservation Grant. Text was authored by Gina A. Darnell,Professional Forester, Forest Resource Planning; and Lee Huss, City of Bloomington Urban Forester. Third Edition February 201... [收起]
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第0页
The City of Bloomington

Tree Care Manual

A Handbook for the Care of Urban Trees

The City of Bloomington Tree Commission

This educational brochure was prepared with funding assistance from the Indiana Department
of Natural Resources Urban Forestry Conservation Grant. Text was authored by Gina A. Darnell,
Professional Forester, Forest Resource Planning; and Lee Huss, City of Bloomington Urban Forester.

Third Edition February 2015
第1页
Message from the Mayor Bloomington Mayor Mark Kruzan
congratulates the owners and
In a city full of trees, the planting of a single tree still resonates powerfully
with the people of Bloomington. As Indiana’s first Tree City USA, designated employees of Solution Tree in a
by the Arbor Day Foundation in 1984 and named a Tree City USA every ceremony in March 2011.
year since then, Bloomington has proven again and again that we as a city The company committed to
value our urban trees for all the benefits they provide. Our courthouse square
would not be the same were it not ringed with trees, and we are making every purchasing 150 trees for planting
effort to protect Bloomington’s matriarchs, magnificent ash trees in Seminary on Bloomington’s city streets.
Park that have stood in silent witness to Bloomington’s rich and colorful
history for nearly 200 years.
Yet the number of trees that grow in our parks and along our city streets is
small compared to the numbers of trees that flourish in homeowners’ back
yards. This third edition of the Tree Care Manual, developed by the dedicated
members of the Bloomington Tree Commission with assistance from the
City’s urban forester, is a valuable tool filled with the technical information
landowners need to properly care for the trees on their own property.
Trees touch us all, and they contribute greatly to our quality of life.
A healthy, well-cared-for urban forest reflects its status as a valued resource
by the community. We are fortunate here in Bloomington for organizations
like the Bloomington Parks Foundation, who have been long-time advocates
and ongoing financial supporters of the urban forestry program through the
Memorial and Honorary Tree Program. Planting a tree in the memory of
a loved one, or in honor of a treasured friend, truly is a lasting tribute. See
pages 26 and 27 of this manual to learn more about the Bloomington Parks
Foundation’s tree fund and tree planting programs.
As long as the planting of a single tree still resonates powerfully with
the people of Bloomington, we will continue to have trees to treasure in
Bloomington for the ages to come.
Thank you,

Mark Kruzan, Mayor
City of Bloomington

Special thanks to the members of the
Bloomington Tree Commission:
Debra Beck
Kerry Bridges
Tom Coleman
Laurel Cornell
David Dilcher
George Hegeman
Dedaimia Whitney
Mia Williams
第2页
Table of Contents Bloomington Parks and
Recreation Department
INTRODUCTION Urban Forestry Program
Implementation of Tree Care Standards. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . ..1 401 N. Morton St. Ste. 250
Adopted Policies Regarding Tree Care. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. .1 Bloomington, Ind. 47404

RECOMMENDED STANDARDS OF TREE CARE PRACTICE (812) 349-3716
PLANTING . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .2 hussl@bloomington.in.gov
Tips for Choosing and Planting City Trees . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. .2 bloomington.in.gov/treecare
Selecting the Right Tree Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Tree Placement in the Tree Lawn . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . .3 Bloomington Tree Care Manual
Plant Material Handling, Inspection and Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Third Edition, February 2015
Planting Procedures
Balled and Burlapped Trees . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .4
Bare-Rooted Trees . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. .5

TREE CARE FOR NEW TREES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

PRUNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Choosing an Arborist. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . .6
Approved Pruning Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
No Tree Topping Allowed. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. .7

REMOVALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Tree Removal Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

TREE PRESERVATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Material Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Tree Protection Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

TREATING WITH PESTICIDES . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . 10
OBTAINING A TREE WORK PERMIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

BLOOMINGTON APPROVED STREET TREE SPECIES
Small Tree species for Small Spaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Recommended Crabapple Cultivars . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . 12
Crabapple Cultivars Not Recommended . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Medium Tree Species for Medium Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Large Tree Species for Large Spaces . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . 14
Undesirable Tree Species for Street Trees . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . 15
Trees Tolerant of Urban Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Trees Slow to Recover From Transplanting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Sources for More Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Planting Season by Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Trees Favored by Japanese Beetles . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. 17

Tree Work Permit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Permit to Treat Trees on Public Land for Emerald Ash Borer. . . .. . . 19
第3页
Tree Care Manual

401 N. Morton St. This Tree Care Manual specifies serves to improve the city’s
Suite 250 the correct standards of practice economic vitality, improve air
Bloomington, Ind. 47404 for tree planting and the care of quality, buffer noise, moderate
bloomington.in.gov/treecare trees in the city of Bloomington, temperatures, increase wildlife
Indiana. This manual, which habitat, and beautify the city.
Mayor serves as an arboricultural The responsibility for improving
Mark Kruzan specifications manual, was Bloomington’s urban forest is a
prepared by the Bloomington Tree joint venture between government
Parks and Recreation Commission and approved by the and citizens.
Department Administrator Board of Public Works and the
Mick Renneisen Common Council of Bloomington. The Bloomington Tree
Commission has adopted these
Urban Forester IMPLEMENTATION OF TREE policies, with a goal of improving
Lee Huss CARE STANDARDS the city:
A municipal tree ordinance to u Encourage the use of proper
Special thanks to the establish a Tree Commission and preventive tree maintenance
members of the Bloomington to regulate the care of public trees techniques to ensure long-lived
Tree Commission has been in effect since 1992 in trees, thereby reducing the need
Debra Beck the city of Bloomington, and was for tree removals.
Kerry Bridges most recently updated in 2007. u Expand the tree crown
Tom Coleman The ordinance stipulates that all coverage in the city by
Laurel Cornell work on trees that lie in the public maintaining existing trees and by
David Dilcher right of way shall comply with planting new urban-tolerant trees,
George Hegeman the standards set forth in this especially native species of shade
Dedaimia Whitney manual. While not mandatory, trees.
Mia Williams it is recommended that work on u Increase public awareness of
trees in the private sector follow and involvement in urban forestry
these standards to assure a safe through educational efforts to
and healthy environment for the promote landscaping and tree care
citizens of Bloomington. on private properties.
u Encourage site designs to
ADOPTED POLICIES provide for the accommodation
REGARDING TREE CARE of trees with other infrastructure,
The designation of “Tree City” such as utilities, parking lots,
is one in which the government buildings, signs, streets, and
and citizens take pride and wish sidewalks.
to see expressed in the actions
and attitudes taken toward trees
in the rights of way. A goal
toward the expansion of tree
cover in our urban environment

Bloomington Tree Care Manual Bloomington Tree Care Manual 1
Third Edition, February 2015
第4页
Recommended Standards of
Tree Care Practice

PLANTING

TIPS FOR CHOOSING AND be planted in summer, as they be painted or flagged in the
PLANTING CITY TREES have good root systems. Freshness vicinity of your digging hole.
Whether you choose to plant a and pre-planting care of tree stock This locate service will also mark
tree in your private yard or along are important for survival, as is underground water and sewer
the street on city property, there weekly post-planting watering for lines in the public right of way
are important things to consider. a full growing season. Buy only area, but not in your yard. If
The city of Bloomington strives quality trees that are healthy, well planting a tree next to the street
to have many beautiful trees pruned, and have a strong central on public property, you must
gracing its streets, but trees need trunk. Bargain trees that have first obtain a Tree Work Permit
to coexist in a safe manner with been left in hot sun or cold wind from the Bloomington Parks and
public infrastructure like utility to dry out are not bargains when Recreation Department. This
lines, streets, sidewalks, buildings, they die. assures that the city urban forester
and signs. Planting the right tree can approve the siting of the tree
in the right place is key to having Always CALL 811 BEFORE YOU and make sure that an appropriate
a successful urban forest. DIG to contact the free public tree species is selected. This will
service utility locate company. also assure that the tree is logged
Before planting any tree, look Underground utilities like phone, into the public tree inventory
around to see how much room gas, electric, and cable TV will database.
a tree would have to grow to
mature size. Look at the space SELECTING THE RIGHT TREE
between the sidewalk and street, TYPE: SIZE IS IMPORTANT!
and above for power lines, phone This manual contains the
lines, or street lights that should approved street tree species
not be blocked. Be sure to pick list (page 11), which is a list
the right size tree both for the of tree types that are suitable
location you are planting and for for planting in Bloomington’s
the size of buildings near the tree. climate. Trees are grouped
Consider tree color both in spring into three size classes—small,
and fall, the scale of the planting, medium, and large—based on
and the final shape of a tree in their mature size. Tree species
designing your planting area. that appear in this list are also adapted to urban stresses such as road
salt, limited grow spaces, and poor soils.
Trees can be planted any time the
ground can be worked. Spring is A size class should be chosen based on the growing space of the
a good time to plant, while trees planting area. To determine what size planting space you have,
are not yet leafed out and newly refer to the “Distance from Infrastructure” section in each list.
planted trees can benefit from If you have a small growing space, choose a tree from the small
spring moisture. Late fall planting tree type list; a medium space, a medium tree type; and a large
also allows roots to be established space, a large tree type.
while trees benefit from winter
moisture. Containerized trees can Bloomington Tree Care Manual 2
第5页
Also included is a list of trees (page 15) that are undesirable for planting in the city. These tree species
usually have disease, pest, or litter problems that make them unsuitable in urban areas. Some species
of trees are invasive in the natural environment due to prolific seeding or root sprouting and as a result
should not be planted. The planting of monocultures of trees (lots of the same kind of tree) is discouraged
because of potential insect and disease problems. The Bloomington Tree Commission highly encourages
the use of native tree species from these lists (pages 11-17) when selecting trees to plant.

TREE PLACEMENT IN THE forester, the following standards 2. No new tree shall be planted
TREE LAWN will apply to trees or shrubs closer than 25 feet from the
Placement guidelines for trees planted in the public right of way: intersecting curb lines of a street
planted in relation to adjacent corner on streets designated as
infrastructure are listed for each 1. No vegetation which reaches local streets, 35 feet on streets
tree size class in the “Distance a mature height of between 2½ designated as collector streets, and
from Infrastructure” sections of and 8 feet shall be planted in the 60 fee on state highways or other
the approved street tree species public right of way within 50 feet arterial streets.
list (pages 11-17). Further, unless of the intersecting curb lines of a
otherwise sanctioned by the street corner. An excellent Web site for tree
Bloomington Parks and Recreation species information and photos
Department or the city’s urban http://forestry.ohiodnr.gov/trees.

Bloomington Tree Care Manual 3
第6页
PLANT MATERIAL PLANTING PROCEDURES
HANDLING, INSPECTION, Balled and Burlapped Trees
AND STORAGE
1. Hole should be dug with the width three times the spread of
1. Only desirable, long-lived the root ball and no deeper than the root ball height. Sod should be
trees of good appearance, beauty, removed from the site.
adaptability, and generally
free from injurious insects and 2. Trees should be planted no deeper than previously grown. The
diseases shall be planted on public trunk flare at the base of the tree should not be buried. In clay soils
sites. Any trees planted shall be trees can be planted slightly high, not to exceed 20% of the root ball
adaptable to USDA Zone 5 climate height above ground level, with sloped backfill covering all roots. Set
conditions. trees on native soil that is thoroughly compacted. Trees should be set
gently into the hole without stress on the trunk or loosening the root
2. Trees shall be tagged, ball.
indicating species and size. Trees
shall be free of wounds, insects, 3. Cut away twine only after tree is set in level position. Fold back
and cankers. Root systems should burlap and wire basket below ground level. Remove all plastic twine.
be full and root balls should
be moist, but not moldy. Trees 4. Straighten tree and backfill ⅓ of hole with existing native soil.
in containers should not have Avoid using excessive organic matter additives to the fill. If desired,
encircling roots. Root balls should at this time a solution of water with root stimulator-type fertilizer
be protected from freezing and can be applied over the roots. Compact backfill with feet. Check tree
drying out. straightness again, complete backfilling tree, and once again compact
the backfill. Construct a three inch-high watering dike around the hole.
3. Plants should be protected
from wind during transport and 5. Apply water to settle the soil.
be kept cool and moist at all times.
Care should be taken to not drop 6. Chop up any dirt clods, add soil if needed.
or otherwise loosen the root ball.
Trees should not be picked up 7. Place a three-inch layer of mulch around the tree in a minimum
by the trunk. Instead, the soil two-foot radius. Do not pile mulch against the trunk. Instead, keep
ball should be supported when mulch at least three inches from the trunk.
moving the plant.
8. Prune only broken branches. Trees do not normally need to be
4. Bare-rooted plants must be staked. Staking is recommended for trees with loose root balls, trees
planted when dormant (buds are exposed to equipment damage, or trees exposed to high wind or high
closed and not leafed out). Roots river conditions. Take care to not damage the root ball when staking
should always be kept cool and and remove any supports before they grow into the tree.
moist and trees planted as soon as
possible.

5. If stored, the trees should be Planting Trees in Landscapes
covered with moist soil, straw, University of Florida
or wood chips. Bare-rooted http://bit.ly/1JMUxGh
trees should be soaked in water
immediately prior to planting.

Bloomington Tree Care Manual 4
第7页
PLANTING PROCEDURES
Bare-Rooted Trees

1. Plant trees immediately upon receipt. Keep roots cool and moist at
all times.

2. Soak roots in water before planting. When planting trees larger
than seedlings, tree roots should be soaked in a wetting gel solution.

3. Cleanly trim any long root hairs or broken roots.

4. Hold tree in hole at soil line, making sure roots are straight and Make sure roots are not bent in a
not bent in a “J” shape or circling in the hole. Carefully pack soil firmly “J” shape or circling in the hole.
around the roots, and water. Plant tree at the previous planting depth
for hardwood seedlings, slightly deeper for evergreen seedlings.

TREE CARE FOR NEW TREES

Watering Pruning Staking
New trees should be Newly planted trees should Only those trees in windy, open
supplementally watered for be pruned only as needed to areas, along floodplains, or with
three years after planting. Plants remove dead, damaged, or poorly loose root balls should be staked
should be thoroughly watered located limbs. After trees are to prevent movement of the base
every five to 10 days from April established, usually a minimum of the tree at the roots. Freedom of
through October as needed as a of three years, structure pruning movement in a tree trunk helps a
supplement to natural rainfall. is recommended to promote a tree develop a stronger trunk.
Plants should receive a total of strong central tree leader and to If staking, avoid cutting roots
two inches of water every two remove lower branches as needed while driving the stake, or
weeks, or about 10 gallons per for clearance. damaging bark with any rope or
two-inch caliper tree. Watering wire used. All staking materials
is critical when summer Wrapping should be removed after one year
temperatures exceed 90° F for Only thin-barked trees such as from installation.
extended days. young maples, linden, beech, and
tulip poplars, which are subject Mulching
Fertilizing to sunscald, should be protected Mulch should be applied at
Fertilizing is not usually November through April with time of planting and reapplied
necessary. At planting time, a high specialty paper tree wrap annually in the spring. Mulch
phosphorus “root stimulator” material. Never use tape or plastic a depth of three inches for a
type fertilizer can be poured over material. All wrapping should minimum two-foot radius around
the roots. If at any time the tree be removed during the growing the tree. Do not pile mulch against
appears stressed, a water-soluble season. Open bark wounds should the trunk. Instead, keep mulch
fertilizer like Miracle-Gro can be not be wrapped but, instead, the two to three inches away from
watered in. bark should be trimmed cleanly the trunk. Recommended mulch
and left open to air circulation. If is shredded bark or aged wood
the wound is fresh and the bark chips.
still partially attached, the bark
can be pressed in place and gently
wrapped to graft back in place.

Bloomington Tree Care Manual 5
第8页
PRUNING

CHOOSING AN ARBORIST REGULATIONS SUMMARY and branch terminals to lateral
Why hire an arborist? An The following regulations apply branches that are large enough to
arborist is a specialist in the care to tree pruning activities on public assume the terminal roles (at least
of individual trees. Arborists street trees, whether done by the ⅓ the diameter of the cut stem).
are knowledgeable about the individual or his/her contracted In simpler terms, always cut back
needs of trees and are trained agent. Refer to the Tree Ordinance to the “Y” of a limb.
and equipped to provide at bloomington.in.gov/treecare for
proper care. Hiring an arborist more information. 4. Any persons or firm engaging
is a decision that should not be in the business of pruning,
taken lightly. Proper tree care is 1. Any citizen pruning a public treating, or removing trees
an investment that can lead to street tree by removing branches shall be bonded and insured as
substantial returns. Well-cared- over three inches diameter in currently required by the city.
for trees are attractive and can size is required to obtain a Tree
add considerable value to your Work Permit (page 18) from the 5. Proper pruning techniques
property. Poorly maintained Bloomington Parks and Recreation and practices will be used, as
trees can be a significant liability. Department or the city urban set forth in the Tree Pruning
Pruning or removing trees, forester prior to pruning activities. Guidelines prepared by
especially large trees, can be the International Society of
dangerous work. Tree work 2. To facilitate the flow of Arboriculture (ISA).
should be done only by those traffic and pedestrians, trees
trained and equipped to work overhanging the street shall be 6. Safe tree pruning practices
safely in trees. pruned for a clearance of 15 feet shall be followed. Acceptable
and trees and shrubs overhanging Tree Care Safety Standards can be
Find a Certified Arborist the sidewalk shall be pruned for a found on the Web by researching
www.isa-arbor.com clearance of eight feet. document ANSI Z133.1-2006 from
the American National Standards
3. No tree topping is allowed. Institute. This document lists the
To reduce the crown of a tree, current national safety standards
crown reduction pruning should for arboricultural operations.
be used, which is accomplished
by pruning back the tree leaders

Bloomington Tree Care Manual 6
第9页
APPROVED NO TREE TOPPING ALLOWED
PRUNING Topping is defined as the severe cutting
TECHNIQUES back of major limbs to stubs larger than
three inches in diameter within the tree’s
These techniques should crown to such a degree as to remove the
be used, for whatever the normal canopy and disfigure the tree.
pruning goals.
To prevent the need for topping, start out
Crown Cleaning is the by planting the right trees that will fit the
removal of dead, dying, or available space. Begin pruning early to
diseased, crowded, weakly modify the structure of a tree as needed. Pruning early in the life of a
attached, and low-vigor tree can prevent the need for expensive mature tree pruning.
tranches from the crown of
a tree. EIGHT GOOD REASONS NOT

Crown Thinning is the TO TOP A TREE More about topping and
selective removal of u cost alternate pruning techniques at
branches to increase u ugliness www.treesaregood.com/treecare
light penetration and air u insects and diseases
movement through the u tree starvation
crown. Thinning opens the u weak limbs u tree shock
foliage of a tree, reduces u rapid new growth u tree death
weight on heavy limbs,
and helps retain the tree’s REMOVALS
natural shape.
TREE REMOVAL STANDARDS cavity shall be filled with soil and
Crown Raising removes leveled.
the lower branches from 1. All removals of street trees
a tree in order to provide shall require a Tree Work Permit PROTECTING TREE ROOTS
clearance for buildings, (page 18) from the Bloomington If a tree’s roots are damaged,
vehicles, pedestrians, and Parks and Recreation Department. the tree is damaged and may
vistas. Persons performing tree removals succumb to an early death. Trees
must meet all insurance and usually decline slowly and begin
Crown Reduction reduces bonding requirements set forth in showing stress with dying tips
the size of a tree, often the Tree Ordinance. of branches in the canopy. While
for clearance for utility roots extend well beyond the drip
lines. Reducing the height 2. Appropriate street and line or edge of a tree’s canopy,
or spread of a tree is sidewalk barriers shall be placed there is a root area that needs
best accomplished by where removals may endanger the special protection—the Critical
pruning back the leaders public. The Department of Public Root Zone (CRZ). This is defined
and branch terminals to Works shall be notified of any as a circular region measured
lateral branches that are street blockages. outward from the tree’s trunk
large enough to assume representing the essential area of
the terminal roles (at least 3. Care shall be taken in the roots that must be maintained
⅓ the diameter of the cut dropping trees to prevent or protected for the tree’s survival.
stem). sidewalk and curb damage. CRZ is a one-foot radial distance
for every inch of tree diameter
Tree topping is not an 4. The stumps of all trees shall at breast height (DBH), with a
be removed to at least six inches minimum distance of eight feet.
accepted pruning method. below ground level and the For very special trees, the formula
changes to 1½ feet for every inch
Bloomington Tree Care Manual 7 of DBH.
第10页
TREE PRESERVATION

MATERIAL STORAGE base materials, the concrete will be moist. Wet burlap makes a good
No dirt or materials, construction less prone to both soil movement protective covering. For the year
or otherwise, should be stored and tree root pressure. after a root pruning for sidewalk,
within the tree’s Critical Root sewer, or curb construction, a tree
Zone for more than one week. Where sidewalk replacement and will benefit from an application
Chemicals, oil or hot charcoals installation is performed, street within the tree root zone of
should never be disposed of in the trees affected will be evaluated by nitrogen in the form of common
CRZ under a tree. When grading the city’s urban forester to assess grass fertilizer.
yards, a layer of soil more than impact of construction on the tree
six inches deep will damage tree health. Damage to sidewalks is TRENCHING AND
roots, as will the cutting of roots. not sufficient reason to remove TUNNELING STANDARDS
Eighty percent of a tree’s roots are a tree if present damage can be
in the top 18 inches of soil. Roots adequately corrected and future 1. Any installation of
need to be close to the surface for damage can be averted. underground public utilities shall
oxygen needs. employ, whenever physically able,
City zoning laws require tunneling instead of trenching
Parking under trees causes soil sidewalks to be installed at a five- within the Critical Root Zone area
compaction which hurts roots and foot width. Any smaller width of any public tree.
stresses trees. During construction requires a variance through the
activities where vehicles will pass Board of Zoning Appeals. Where 2. All roots over two inches in
repeatedly under trees and over tree root conflicts exist it may be diameter shall be cut cleanly.
roots, a thick layer of wood chips possible to reduce sidewalk width All trenches shall not stay open
can be placed temporarily on the and sill be in compliance with longer than necessary and shall be
path to prevent soil compaction. federal ADA sidewalk mandates. properly barricaded.
With city permission, sidewalks
SIDEWALK CONSTRUCTION may be reduced to a width of 3. Four-by-Four-by-Four Rule:
AND REPAIR three feet at a tree as long as there if any four tree roots four inches
Large trees in small grow spaces is a passing zone of five-foot in diameter within four feet of
can cause sidewalk lift and a sidewalk width within 200 feet of the tree are cut, the tree should be
tripping hazard. Planting the right the tree area. removed because of increased tree
tree (or no tree) in a small space wind-throw failure potential.
helps prevent this problem. Where With permission from the city, it
tree and sidewalk conflicts already may be possible to install paving
exist, there is unfortunately no options such as paver bricks,
perfect solution. Options range asphalt, or rubber mats, or to
from sidewalk redesign to root ramp the site to avoid cutting
pruning to tree removal. tree roots. If tree roots are cut,
they must be cut cleanly. It is also
Sidewalk lift is caused by both important that not too many roots
tree root expansion and by poor are cut. The “four-by-four-by-four
sidewalk condition. Sidewalks rule” noted in the next section is
deteriorate with time and from a good guideline for determining
seasonal movement from freezing if a tree’s support or health is
and thawing. Tree roots can compromised.
then grow into cracks and voids,
raising pavement. By properly Roots exposed during
installing sidewalks with adequate construction should be kept

Bloomington Tree Care Manual 8
第11页
Bloomington Tree Care Manual 9
第12页
TREATING WITH PESTICIDES

TREATMENT STANDARDS

1. Treating trees or flora with pesticides (herbicides or insecticides)
shall be done only for the control of specific diseases or insects, with
the proper materials, at the properly labeled dosage, and applied at the
proper time to obtain the desired control, as specified by the chemical
manufacturer. All spraying of pesticides shall conform to federal and
state regulations.

2. Read the product label and follow all manufacturers’ instructions
in order to protect yourself and the public when using chemicals.

3. A Tree Work Permit (page 18) must be secured before treating with
pesticides any trees or flora on the public street right of way or any
public places. An Application for Permit to Treat Trees on Public Land
for Emerald Ash Borer (page 19) must be submitted before treating
ash trees on the public street right of way or any public place with an
approved insecticide to protect the tree from EAB infestation.

OBTAINING A TREE WORK PERMIT

Obtaining a Tree Work Permit is required for any persons:

1. planting a tree in the public right of way, such as along the street;

2. removing any tree on a public right of way or public place;

3. pruning, within the public right of way, any tree where branches
more than three inches in diameter will be removed;

4. excavating any ditches, tunnels, or trenches; or laying any drive;
installing underground utilities; or storing any soil, stone, cement, or
other substance within a 10-foot radius of any public tree;

5. treating with pesticides any tree(s) or flora on a public right of way
or public place

Tree Work Permit applications are available in this manual on page
18 (Tree Work Permit) and page 19 (Permit to Treat Trees for Emerald
Ash Borer); from the office of the Bloomington Parks and Recreation
Department, located at 401 N. Morton St. Suite 250 inside City Hall,
or online at bloomington.in.gov/treecare. Permit applications must be
approved before work begins.

Bloomington Tree Care Manual 10
第13页
Bloomington Approved
Street Tree Species Lists

Per the City of Bloomington Tree Ordinance, the following tables shall constitute the official
street tree species acceptable for planting in Bloomington. These are the tree species with growth
characteristics that do well on urban sites. All trees are suited for USDA cold hardiness Zone 5.
The tables also include specifications for the minimum distances to be maintained between trees
and other infrastructure when planting new trees within the public right of way.

TABLE 1 - SMALL TREE SPECIES FOR SMALL SPACES

Small trees are defined as those trees attaining a height of 20 to 30 feet at maturity.

DISTANCE FROM INFRASTRUCTURE
»» Plant no closer than two feet from street, sidewalk, or curb.
»» Minimum grow space of four feet of tree lawn.
»» Small trees may be planted under overhead utility lines.
»» Do not plant within five feet of any underground utility (phone, sewer, water, cable, electric).
»» Do not plant within 10 feet of any utility pole or fire hydrant.
»» Do not plant within three feet of a parking area unless vehicle wheel stops are provided.
»» Trees should not be planted where traffic line of sight is compromised at intersections.
»» Tree pruning may be required as the tree matures to maintain adequate street and sidewalk
clearance.

MINIMUM SIZE
Trees planted in the public street tree lawn must be a minimum 1½-inch diameter caliper (caliper
is measured six inches above ground level).

Common Name Scientific Name Recommended Cultivars
Allegheny Serviceberry Amelanchier laevis
American Hornbeam Carpinus caroliniana ‘Princess Diana’ ‘Autumn Brilliance’
Apple Serviceberry hybrids Amelanchier x grandiflora Use single-trunk tree form on streets
Eastern Redbud Cercis canadensis Many different types. See Table 2. Some
Flowering Crabapple Malus sp. native to the U.S., others Eurasia
Plant only on sheltered sites, tree form
Flowering Dogwood Cornus florida ‘Ivory Silk’
Japanese Tree Lilac Syringa reticulate
Kousa Dogwood Cornus kousa chinensis ‘Inermis’
Shadowblow Serviceberry Amelanchier canadensis pink flowers, purple leaves
Thornless Cockspur Hawthorn Crataegus crus-galli only where thorns are not problematic

Washington Hawthorn Crataegus phanenopyrum

Winter King Hawthorn Crataegus viridis ‘Winter King’

Bloomington Tree Care Manual 11
第14页
TABLE 2 - RECOMMENDED CRABAPPLE CULTIVARS

Trees of the Malus (crabapple) species come in many beautiful shapes, sizes, and colors of leaf and
flower, making it a popular, highly utilized specimen tree. Some crabapples, however, are plagued
with disease, insects, and fruit litter problems. Diseases include scab, fireblight, apple-cedar rust,
and powdery mildew. Researchers have bred new cultivars to resist these diseases and insects
like the Japanese beetle. Maintenance requirements of crabapples can also be rather high. Often,
recurring sprouts must be trimmed from the tree base. Because crabapples can grow quite wide
and low, trees planted next to sidewalks, streets, and driveways need to be pruned for adequate
clearance. Use of crabapple trees along the street should be reserved for tree lawns of sufficient size
to accommodate the eventual width.

Many new cultivars are on the market annually. Purchase only disease-resistant varieties.

The following attractive cultivars, tested by Purdue University, have proven to have good disease
and insect tolerance and few problems with fruit drop.

Cultivar Height Width Comments
‘Adirondack’ 18’ 10’ densely covered with white flowers
Baccata ‘Jackii’ 20’ 20’ white flowers, glossy leaves
‘Bechtel’ 30’ 15’ fragrant, large double pink flowers
‘Centzam’ (Centurion) 20’ 15’ rose-red flower, reddish leaves
‘David’ 12’ 12’ good looking year ‘round, smaller
‘Hargozam’ (Harvest Gold) 25’ 20’ white flowers, gold fruit
‘Pink Spires’ 15’ 12’ pink flowers, purple leaves
‘Prairiefire’ 20’ 20’ pink-red flowers, excellent tree
‘Red Barron’ 18’ 8’ good for narrow spaces
‘Red Jewel’ (Jewelcole) 15’ 12’ smaller tree, red persistent fruit
‘Sinai Fire’ 15’ 15’ white flowers, weeping shape
‘Van Eseltine’ 25’ 12’ upright vase shape
‘Winter Gold’ 25’ 20’ winter-persistent gold fruit
X zumi ‘Calocarpa’ (Zumi) 20’ 24’ white flower, red persistent fruit

CRABAPPLE CULTIVARS NOT RECOMMENDED

The following should not be used because of insect and disease susceptibility.

Cultivar Cultivar Cultivar
‘Adams’ ‘Indian Summer’ ‘Selkirk’
‘Baskatong’ ‘Sentinel’
‘Brandywine’ ‘Liset’ ‘Snowdrift’
‘Candied Apple’ ‘Madonna’ ‘Sugar Tyme’
‘Donald Wyman’ ‘Mary Potter’ ‘Velvet Pillar’
‘Doubloons’ ‘Prairie Maid’ ‘White Cascade’
‘Indian Magic’ ‘Profusion’ ‘White Candle’
‘Robinson’

Bloomington Tree Care Manual 12
第15页
TABLE 3 - MEDIUM TREE SPECIES FOR MEDIUM SPACES

Medium trees are defined as those trees attaining a height of 30 to 45 feet at maturity.

DISTANCE FROM INFRASTRUCTURE
»» Plant no closer than three feet from street, sidewalk, or curb.
»» Minimum grow space of five to six feet of tree lawn.
»» Do not plant under or within 10 lateral feet of any overhead utility lines.
»» Do not plant within five feet of any underground utility (phone, sewer, water, cable, electric).
»» Do not plant within 10 feet of any utility pole or fire hydrant.
»» Do not plant within three feet of a parking area unless vehicle wheel stops are provided.
»» Trees should not be planted where traffic line of sight is compromised at intersections.

MINIMUM SIZE
Trees planted in the public street tree lawn must be a minimum 1¾ inch diameter caliper (caliper
is measured six inches above ground level).

Native tree species are indicated in bold.

Common Name Scientific Name Recommended Cultivars
American Hophornbeam Ostrya virginiana
Autumn Flame Red Maple Acer rubrum ‘Autumn Flame’
European Hornbeam Carpinus betulus ‘Fastigata’
Golden Raintree* Koelreuteria paniculata *should come from northern seed
sources and nurseries; extreme cold may
Hedge Maple Acer campestre damage the tree
Katsura Tree Cercidiphyllum japonicum
River Birch Betula nigra Plant only on sheltered sites, tree form
Turkish Filbert Corylus colurna relatively short lived
Whitespire Birch Betula platyphlla japonica
Yellowwood Cladrastis lutea ‘Whitespire’

Bloomington Tree Care Manual 13
第16页
TABLE 4 - LARGE TREE SPECIES FOR LARGE SPACES

Large trees are defined as those trees attaining a height of 45 feet or more at maturity.

Large shade trees are recommended for planting wherever room allows, as they help increase
Bloomington’s overall tree canopy and provide numerous environmental benefits.

DISTANCE FROM INFRASTRUCTURE
»» Plant no closer than four feet from street, sidewalk, or curb.
»» Minimum grow space of eight feet of tree lawn.
»» Do not plant under or within 20 lateral feet of any overhead utility lines.
»» Do not plant within five feet of any underground utility pole or fire hydrant.
»» Do not plant within three feet of a parking area unless vehicle wheel stops are provided.
»» Trees should not be planted where traffic line-of-sight is compromised at intersections.

MINIMUM SIZE
Trees planted in the public street tree lawn must be a minimum 1¾ inch diameter caliper (caliper
is measured six inches above ground level).

Native tree species are indicated in bold.

Common Name Scientific Name Recommended Cultivars
Bald Cypress Taxodium distichum
Basswood Tilia Americana ‘Boulevard’, ‘Redmond’
Blackgum/Tupelo Nyssa sylvatica
Black Maple Acer nigrum ‘Greencolumn’
Bur Oak Quercus macrocarpa needs grow space of 12 feet or more
Cucumber Magnolia Magnolia acuminate only where thorns are not problematic
English Oak Quercus robur susceptible to powdery mildew
Ginkgo Ginkgo biloba male clones only
Hackberry Celtis occidentalis
Homestead Elm Ulmus x ‘Homestead’
Kentucky Coffeetree Gymnocladus dioica male clones only
Littleleaf Linden Tilia cordata ‘Glenleven,’ ‘Greenspire’
London Planetree Platanus x acerfolia ‘Bloodgood’
Northern Red Oak Quercus rubra
Red Maple Acer rubrum ‘Armstrong’, ‘October Glory’,
‘Red Sunset’, ‘Northwood’, ‘Bonfire’,
Shingle Oak Quercus imbricaria ‘Commemoration’
Shumard Oak Quercus shumardii
Sugar Maple Acer saccharum ‘Endowment’, ‘Green Mountain’,
‘Legacy’ - do not plant too deep
Swamp White Oak Quercus bicolor
Sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua ‘Moraine’ - all have messy fruit
Thornless Honeylocust Gleditsia triacanthos inermis ‘Imperial’, ‘Shademaster’, ‘Skyline’,
‘Sunburst’
White Oak Quercus alba
Zelkova Zelkova serrata ‘Green Vase’
第17页
TABLE 5 - UNDESIRABLE TREE SPECIES FOR STREET TREES

These trees shall not be planted along public streets. Undesirable characteristics are listed.
Evergreens are acceptable on public sites only where visibility is not a problem.

»» Fast-growing trees are weak-wooded trees and are susceptible to storm damage.
»» Do not plant an unknown seedling, which is very likely an undesirable species.
»» Avoid buying and planting cheap trees that have poor form or are partially dead.

Common Name Scientific Name Problems
American Elm Ulmus Americana disease prone
Amur maple Acer ginnala invasive seed
Arborvitae Thuja sp. visibility problems
Aspen Populus tremuloides weak wood
Ash, White and Green Fraxinus sp. Emerald ash borer prone
Black Locust Robinia pseudoacacia cankers, borers, breakage prone
Black Walnut, Butternut Juglans sp. messy fruit, alleotrophy
Boxelder Acer negundo weak wood, poor form, invasive seed

Catalpa Catalpa speciosa messy fruit
Common Cherry, Black Cherry Prunus sp. messy fruit, insect problems
Common Crabapple Malus sp. (unimproved) messy fruit, disease prone
Cottonwood Populus deltoides weak wood, messy seed
Fir Abies sp. visibility obstruction
Flowering Pear Pyrus calleryana invasive seed
Juniper Juniper sp. visibiity obstruction
Lombardy Poplar Populus sp. ‘Lombardy’ canker disease, weak wood
Mountain Ash Sorbus sp. thrives poorly here
Norway Maple Acer platanoides invasive seed
Osage Orange Maclura pomifera messy fruit
Persimmon Diospyros virginiana messy fruit
Pine Punus sp. visibility obstruction
Red, Slippery Elm Ulmus rubra disease problems
Russian Olive Elaeagnus angustifolia disease prone
Siberian Elm Ulmus pumila disease prone, weak wood, messy
Silver Maple Acer saccharinum weak wood, poor form
Spruce Picea sp. visibility obstruction
Tree of Heaven Ailanthus altissima invasive seed, weak wood
Tulip Poplar Liriodendron tulipifera weak wood
White Mulberry Morus alba messy fruit, somewhat invasive
White Paper Birch Betula papyrifera borer insects, short lived
Willow Salix sp. weak wood, invasive roots, messy

Bloomington Tree Care Manual 15
第18页
TABLE 6 - TREES TOLERANT OF URBAN CONDITIONS

The following tables give advice on trees that tolerate urban conditions and timetables for planting
to get the best survival.

Urban sites often have poor soils and are exposed to stresses like pollution and road salt. These
trees have proven to be most tolerant of such conditions and are good choices for tough sites.

Species Species
Basswood Hawthorns
Black Maple Hedge Maple
Bur Oak Honey Locust
Crabapple Kentucky Coffeetree
Cucumber Magnolia Littleleaf Linden
London Planetree
Ginkgo Eastern Redbud
Golden Raintree Shingle Oak

Hackberry

TABLE 7 - TREES SLOW TO RECOVER FROM TRANSPLANTING

Species Species
American Hornbeam Kentucky Coffeetree
Flowering Dogwood Cucumber Magnolia

Ginkgo Serviceberry
Hackberry

Sources for More Web Sites
Information
Arbor Day Foundation
Purdue Extension The following reference books www.arborday.org
Free advice on tree care, and are good resources for tree care
insects and diseases of plants. information: Emerald Ash Borer
(812) 349-2575 emeraldashborer.info
Tree Maintenance by Pirone
Textbooks Indiana Urban Forest
Urban forestry-related material Tree Care Handbook by Morton Council, Inc.
is located at the Monroe County Arboretum www.iufc.org
Public Library.
(812) 349-3050 International Society of
http://mcpl.info Arboriculture
www.isa-arbor.com

Bloomington Tree Care Manual 16
第19页
TABLE 8 - PLANTING SEASON BY SPECIES

Experience in tree planting has shown that certain trees have a higher survival rate when dug and balled
and burlapped in the spring. The following two lists show the season that trees are normally dug at the
nursery and out-planted. While containerized trees can be planted during most of the growing season,
balled and burlapped trees should be planted when they are dormant (the leaves are off). This is usually
Oct. 20 through May 1 in northern Indiana. Trees can be planted in winter as long as the ground is not
frozen and the root ball is kept from freezing. Balled and burlapped trees can be planted while in leaf if extra
care is taken to maintain constant root ball moisture and to protect the fragile leaves from drying out.

Spring Planting Only Hackberry Sources for More
Bald Cypress Hawthorns, all Information
Kousa Dogwood
Black Gum/Tupelo London Planetree Web Sites
Cucumber Magnolia Oaks, all (summer watering required)
Northern Trees-Tree Selection
Flowering Cherry Red Maple Guide
Flowering Dogwood Sweetgum http://orb.at.ufl.edu/TREES
Zelkova
Flowering Pear Indiana University Campus
Flowering Plus Kentucky Coffeetree “The Woodland Campus”
Golden Raintree Littleleaf Linden Walking Tour
Redbud https://spea.indiana.edu/doc/
Spring or Fall Planting River Birch about/woodland.pdf
Basswood/Linden Serviceberry
Black Maple Sugar Maple Tree Link
Crabapples www.treelink.org
Ginkgo
Hedge Maple International Society of
Honey Locust Arboriculture Tree Care
Japanese Tree Lilac www.treesaregood.com

TABLE 9 - TREES FAVORED BY JAPANESE BEETLES U.S. Forest Service,
Northeastern Area Urban and
The following trees may be defoliated in areas where Japanese beetles Community Forestry
are numerous in July and August. Avoid these tree species if a local www.na.fs.fed.us/urban
Japanese beetle problem exists.

Species Species
Crabapple Linden
Flowering Cherry Littleleaf Linden
Flowering Plum River Birch

Bloomington Tree Care Manual 17
第20页
City of Bloomington APPLICATION FOR Phone (812) 349-3716
Parks & Recreation TREE WORK PERMIT Fax (812) 349-3705
401 N. Morton St., Ste. 250
E-mail hussl@bloomington.in.gov

Site (if address is unknown, fill in (A) and (B)) ZIP Code
1. Address
(A) N, S, E, or W side of (B) feet N, S, E, or W from intersection of
2. Subdivision Lot Number
3. App licant Nam e Stree t Addres s

City State ZIP Phone E-mail
Contractor name and phone number
Plans by (name and phone number)
Proposed work: plant l prune l remove l apply chemical l work with 15 feet of l otherwise affect (explain):

Number of trees affected Size of each tree (DBH)
Width of tree lawn Species of each tree
Circle all present within 15’: overhead wires l underground wires l gas l water l fire plug l sewer l street light l traffic sign/light
Explain exactly what you wish to do and why (attach additional plans if necessary):

*Work to begin: *Work to end: *Permit valid only during this period unless extended by Department.

The applicant named above shall fully complete and sign this form. Unless otherwise approved by the Bloomington Parks and Recreation
Department, this application must be submitted at least 7 days prior to date work is to begin. The permit is not valid until signed by the
Department. Please keep a copy of the signed permit for your records. The applicant or his agent is solely responsible for providing notice as
required by state law to all underground utilities before commencing an excavation.
By signing below I affirm that the information provided above is true. I agree to abide by any and all conditions imposed below. I agree to
indemnify and hold harmless the City, the Board, and the officers, agents and employees of the City and the Board from any and all claims,
demands, damages, costs, expenses or other liability arising out of the reckless or negligent act or omission or any willful misconduct on the
part of the applicant or any contractors retained by the applicant for work under this permit. If I disagree with the denial of this permit or any
conditions imposed, I may appeal in writing within 10 days to the Board of Park Commissioners.

Signed Date

Date received: DO NOT WRITE BELOW
Findings if different than information:

Conditions for approval or reasons for rejection: o ANSI A300 - Standards for Pruning, Guying, Fertilizing,

Spraying and Lightning Protection of Shade Trees

o ANSI Z133.1 - Safety Requirements for Tree Care and

Removing Trees and Cutting Brush

o ANSI Z60.1 - American Standard for Nursery Stock

o Approved o Rejected

S ignature Bloom ington Parks & Recreati on Depa rtment Date
第21页
Application for Permit to Treat Trees on Public Land for Emerald Ash Borer

Bloomington Parks & Recreation Department
401 N. Morton St. Ste. 250 l Bloomington, IN 47404
Urban Forester Lee Huss l (812) 349-3716 l hussl@bloomington.in.gov

The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an invasive beetle from Asia that attacks and kills North American ash trees. The EAB attacks only ash trees and will
kill any ash tree not protected with insecticide. The City of Bloomington is responding to the presence of EAB by strategically removing ash trees, and
by treating some select ash trees with chemical insecticide.
Residents may opt to pay for the chemical treatment of ash trees in the public right-of-way with an approved EAB insecticide to prevent EAB
infestation and the removal of the tree. Applicants should understand chemical treatment of an ash tree for EAB is a financial commitment for the
lifetime of the tree, with treatments required every two to three years. Residents who wish to initiate the chemical treatment of ash trees in the public
right-of-way must submit this form to the Bloomington Parks and Recreation Department at least 7 days prior to the date the chemical treatment is to
take place. Only ash trees that are in good health will be considered.

For more information about insecticides approved for use against EAB, or for help positively identifying ash trees, visit www.eabindiana.info.
Healthy ash trees along city streets that are being consistently treated by an approved tree care service for EAB remain the property of the City of
Bloomington, but will not be removed by the City unless a condition or circumstance arises that necessitates the tree’s removal. These conditions
include, but are not limited to: structural damage to the tree (e.g. lightning strike, vehicle collision) that creates a safety hazard; interference with traffic
line of sight, or infrastructure like fire hydrants and utility lines; or infestation by EAB despite efforts to chemically treat the tree. The final decision
regarding the treatment or removal of any street tree lies with the city’s urban forester.
Location of ash tree/s affected - If address is unknown, fill in (A) and (B)
1. Address: ____________________________________________________________________ ZIP Code: _____________________
(A) N, S, E, or W side of ____________________ (B) ____________ feet N,S, E, or W from intersection of ______________________
2. Subdivision ________________________________________ Lot Number: ____________________________________________

Applicant’s Name:_________________________________________ Street Address: _______________________________________
City:_______________________________________________________________________ State: ________ ZIP: ______________
Phone: __________________________________ E-mail: ____________________________________________________________

Who is doing the EAB treatment?
Name and phone number: ______________________________________________________________________________________

Number of ash tree/s affected:_______ Size (diameter in inches) of each affected tree:________________________________________
Date treatment to occur: Between ____________and ___________(Permit valid only during this period unless extended by the Department.)

The applicant named above shall fully complete and sign this form. Unless otherwise approved by the Parks and Recreation Department, this application must be
submitted at least seven days prior to the date treatment is to take place. The permit is not valid until signed by the Department. Please keep a copy of the signed permit
for your records.
By signing below I affirm that the information provided above is true. I agree to abide by any and all conditions imposed below. I agree to indemnify and hold harmless
the City, the Board, and the officers, agents and employees of the City and the Board from any and all claims, demands, damages, costs, expenses or other liability arising
out of the reckless or negligent act or omission or any willful misconduct on the part of the applicant or any contractors retained by the applicant for work under this
permit. If I disagree with the denial of this permit or any conditions imposed, I may appeal in writing within ten days to the Board of Park Commissioners.

Signed: _______________________________________________________ Date: _____________________________________________________

Do Not Write Below

Date Received: _____________________ Findings if different than information provided:__________________________

Conditions for approval or reasons for rejection:

o Approved o Rejected

Signature:________________________________________________________________________ Date:_______________________
Bloomington Tree Care Manual 19
第22页
EAB for Homeowners:
A Quick Guide

The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an invasive beetle from Asia that attacks and kills North
American ash trees (Fraxinus spp). EAB attacks only ash trees and will kill every ash tree not
protected with insecticides. The adult beetle is metallic green and about ½ inch long.

EAB came from Asia to Detroit in the early 1990s in shipping material made from ash wood.
The insect was not identified in Michigan until 2002 after thousands of ash trees in the area had
already died. Since then it has been spread to several states and parts of Canada, killing millions
of ash trees. EAB is most commonly moved to new areas on infested firewood.

For detailed information on EAB and what homeowners can do to manage it on their ash trees,
please visit: www.eabindiana.info

Do I have an ash tree in my yard or neighborhood? Opposite
branching
Look for:
Alternate
• Branches and buds that are opposite from each other, not alternate or branching

staggered.

• Compound leaves (composed of leaflets instead
of a single leaf). Each leaf is made up of 5-11 leaflets.

Is my ash tree infested with EAB? Look for:

Dieback of leaves Vertical splits Tiny D-shaped exit
at the top of the tree. in the bark holes in the tree’s bark.

Curvy S-shaped channels Epicormic shoots at the Woodpecker damage
under the bark. base of the tree. on the bark (“flecking”)
第23页
Arbor Day 2011 Arbor Day 2012
Indiana University Campus Monroe County Public Library

Arbor Day 2013 Arbor Day 2014
Bryan Park East Seventh Street
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